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Chapter 8.4 - Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard - Practical Tutorial

We hope that you have gathered all your components, now just follow these images and tutorial step by step to  a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard.

1. We will first assemble the chasis. Your Chasis might be different than the chasis shown below, but assembling chasis is very easy. It doesn't require such type of tutorial, but still we have given one to understand the whole steps. 
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

2. As you can see in the following image, the Chasis we have fixed both the geared motors inside.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

3. See, the wire of both the motors have been passed through holes. We are going to connect these wires to our breadboard.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

4. If you have this type of chasis, it is important to take out the wire from it.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

5. Now just attach the top and bottom of the chasis as shown in the below figure.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

6. And then fix the caster ball in front of the Chasis.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard


 7. Now attach both the wheels to the chasis.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

8. Now cut some double sided tape and pasted it as shown in the below image.


Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

9. Now place the breadboard on the Chasis so that it doesn't falls while moving.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

10. Now take your AA battery holder and stick it behind the chasis with double sided tape. This will be used for power supply for motors.


Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

11. Now connect the +Vcc terminal of battery to the 8th pin of L293D Motor Driver IC and gnd to gnd lane of breadboard.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

12. Following image shows a closer view of the connection.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

13. Now similarly stick the 9V battery in front of Chasis using sticky tape. It will be used to power up the breadboard.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

14. Similarly Connect the power supply in the breadboard.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

15. If you have purchased the kit from internet, it would be something like this if not then you can get the description of making this kit on hard PCB in the circuit diagram of this chapter. Alright, now take 4 one to one connectors and connect them all to the IR  

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

16. Connect the Gnd pin of IR Kit to the gnd lane of Breadboard.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

17. And connect the +ve pin of IR kit to the +Vcc Lane of Bread Board.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

18. Connect the S1 or Sensor1 pin of IR kit to Pin no 2 of LM324 Comparator IC.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

19. Now connect S2 or Sensor2 pin of IR Kit to the Pin no 15 of LM324 IC.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

20. It would look something like this. Quite a mess? Don't worry, everything will work fine if you have done the connection properly.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

21. Stick a small sticky on the IR Kit as shown in the below figure.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
22. Now paste it as shown in the below image. 

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

23. You must be thinking why there is a white sheet lying on the ground. Well its for the track which we are going to make for Line Follower Robot.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

24. Now take the black tape. and start making track as shown in the following image.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

25. Dont hurry the process, Make a tract something like this. Don't make 90 degree turns because robot will not work.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
26. Double the thickness of the track. It will make a more reliable track for Line Following Robot.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

27. Now Power up the circuit and adjust the potentiometer and set it such a way that the lights which are connected to the output of LM324 stay on when placed on black track and stay off  when white track is detected. If you still are figuring out then you didn't pay any attention did you? Just jump to the chapter 6 and go to practical tutorial section and see how to configure the potentiometer. And then you can come back here and configure it.

Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

28. And if you have hand-made IR kit yourself and worried about whether it is going to work it or not, then for only you we have changed the IR kit in the below image. connection is same, but the kit is handmade.


Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard
Making a Line Following Robot (LFR) with 8051 Microcontroller on Breadboard

Now Program the microcontroller and power up the whole circuit. Keep it on the track and see the magic. You can check the next chapter for the source code and last section to check the video Output.


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